Best Practice

In Table 1 the essential elements of an Integrated Control strategy for late blight in Europe are presented and estimated ratings (based on expert judgement) for implementation, barriers and contribution to input reduction are given.

Table 1

Elements

Implementation

Barriers

Input reduction

Organic

Crop Rotation Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND limited influence on blight Intermediate Applicable in organic farming
  Primary inoculum sources Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND risk perception Intermediate Applicable in organic farming
  Planting time and density Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND limited influence on blight Small Applicable in organic farming
  Fertilization Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Limited influence on blight Small Applicable in organic farming
  Irrigation Widespread in practice Limited influence on blight Small Applicable in organic farming
  Cultivar resistance Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND risks AND risk perception Lower dependency on chemicals AND Large Applicable in organic farming
  Fungicides Widespread in practice Economic/costs AND risk perception Intermediate Not applicable in organic farming, except that some countries allow use of Copper
  DSS Only on best farms/in some regions/in some countries Economic/costs AND risk perception Intermediate Applicable in organic farming, excluding fungicide modules etc.
  Desiccation Widespread in practice Risk perception Small Applicable in organic farming, excluding dessication by applying chemicals
  Harvest Widespread in practice Economic/costs Small Applicable in organic farming
  Storage Widespread in practice Economic/costs Small Applicable in organic farming


Implementation: the degree the Best Practices (BPs) are used on farmers fields Barriers: description of the barriers why BPs are not used in practice such as costs, labour, risk perception and available registrations. Contribution to input reduction: description of the contribution of the BPs to a lower dependence of chemicals and/or the degree the BPs lower the input of chemicals Organic: describes whether a BP can also be applied in organic potatoes.