Aarhus University Seal

Large regional differences in agricultural adaptation to future climate change in Europe

An overview of ongoing and planned climate adaptation measures in European crop production shows vast regional differences. Southern Europe has the highest number of climate change initiatives and is also the region that, according to researchers from among other Aarhus University, will experience the most negative impacts due to increased drought and extreme heat. According to the researchers, there is a great need for further focus and political awareness if European agriculture is to adapt to future climatic conditions.

Marked differences in how climate change will affect different parts of Europe require further focus and political attention if European agriculture is to adapt to future climatic conditions, say researchers. Photo: Colourbox.com

We are already experiencing it. Heat waves and droughts hit large parts of Europe during the summertime, particularly in the southern part of the continent. Winters have become milder and more wet in the north. Both are trends that will continue in the future and will affect our agriculture and not least food security. But has it already affected the way we farm? What changes are being seen in practice in different parts of Europe? And what does the future hold for European agriculture? A group of researchers from 24 European research institutions, led by Aarhus University, has investigated this.

"So far, only data from field experiments and different crop models have been used to assess different measures to adapt to climate change. But this approach has its limitations, so we have gathered knowledge from a wide range of experts across Europe, in 15 European countries to be precise," says Professor and Head of Department Jørgen E. Olesen from the Department of Agroecology at Aarhus University.

More precisely, Jørgen E. Olesen coordinated the collection of expert knowledge and assessments of ongoing and planned climate adaptation measures. The results have now been published in the European Journal of Agronomy.

"We simply consulted experts from all over Europe - both those behind desks, but especially those with rubberboots on and dirt under their nails. We've asked them what changes they've seen in the cropping patterns and management of some of the most important crops in Europe. We also asked them to comment on whether the changes they are experiencing are related to climate change," says Jørgen E. Olesen.

Large regional differences

Five crops were the starting point. Wheat, oilseed rape, maize, potatoes and grape wine are among Europe's most widely grown and important crops, so they were a natural choice for the researchers to map changes in crops, cropping patterns and, not least, how much of the change can be attributed to climate change.

"We can see that there are clear regional differences in both observed and projected actions for all five crops. And it's perhaps not surprising that we see these marked regional differences," says Jørgen E. Olesen, who points out that even though Europe is not so geographically large in a global perspective, climate change still affects the continent in very different ways.

In northern Europe, the timing of field work has changed and new crops and varieties have been introduced. According to Jørgen E. Olesen, one of the most significant changes in the future will be a longer growing season.

"Temperatures are also rising in northern Europe, and the changes are particularly pronounced during the winter months. It will be milder and wetter. With higher temperatures, the growing season will be extended both in spring and autumn," he says, pointing out that northern Europe will experience far less consequences compared to the climate changes further south.

Central and southern Europe are already adapting to climate change. And, according to Jørgen E. Olesen, they need to be as climate change here is manifesting itself in extreme heat, drought and erratic rainfall.

Focus on water in the future

"Basically, we are going to see more drought and higher temperatures in southern and central Europe, and we can see that people are already starting to make adjustments in terms of water and soil management. We can also see that new crop varieties with better drought tolerance are being introduced, so that they can cope better. Actions have already been taken and more are planned, but we must also be aware that this will be enormously difficult to adapt to. In the future, rainfall will be more erratic in these regions and we cannot imagine crops that can grow without water. The physiological conditions for plants are just such that they need more water at higher temperatures because the evaporation pressure will also become higher," he explains.

Changes in cropping patterns and different adaptations have been observed in all the regions studied, but not all can be attributed to climate change. In general, most adaptations due to climate change are found in the Mediterranean region.

Measures must be adapted to regional conditions

According to the researchers, more advanced approaches to integrated pest management and early warning systems are needed across Europe now and even more so in the future, but it is important to be aware of the differences in risks and extremes in different regions.  Changes in timing and methods of field management, fertilisation, plant protection and new methods of soil moisture conservation are expected to become prominent adaptation measures across Europe.

"We can see that there is already a focus on climate adaptation in many parts of Europe, but I have to stress the importance of improving water management, both in terms of drainage and irrigation, but also in preserving the water in the soil and landscape. This will require changes in the landscape, revised environmental rules and measures and possibly subsidy schemes as part of adaptation, particularly in southern Europe," says Jørgen E. Olesen.

The study shows that, particularly in Southern Europe, measures are already implemented and planned to help secure the future of food production. But more needs to be done, according to Jørgen E. Olesen, it is not just water scarcity and high temperatures that will cause problems for future agriculture in Europe.

"Weeds, plant diseases and fungal infestations are also going to cause problems, so we need to work on that too. And here we have another challenge in that we have to phase out pesticides at the same time. Another problem will be insects, which thrive in higher temperatures. It will be demanding for our cropping systems, and we need to find new ways to design them to limit the damaging effects of insects," says Jørgen E. Olesen. He points out that there is simply a need for an agricultural policy focus on all the challenges that European agriculture will face and that this cannot be achieved by an overall EU policy alone, but that a regional focus is needed to take into account the marked differences in how climate change will affect different regions of Europe.

Additional information

We strive to ensure that all our articles live up to the Danish universities' principles for good research communication(scroll down to find the English version on the web-site). Because of this the article will be supplemented with the following information:

Department of Agroecology at Aarhus Universitet, China Agricultural University, University of Florence, Czech Academy of Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), University of Leuven, Agroscope, Agroecology and Environment Division, University of Bern, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation at State Research Institute Poland, Vytautus Magnus University, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Earth Science Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciene, University of Potsdam, Estonian Academy of Science, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Wageningen University, Mendel University in Brno, iCLIMATE – Interdisciplinary Centre for Climate Change at Aarhus University and Georg-August-University Göttingen.


The study was conducted as part of the CropM component of the FACCE MACSUR2 project. Jin Zhao and Jørgen E. Olesen's contribution to MACSUR2 was funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. Jin Zhao was also funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Project No.2019YFA0607402) and the 2115 Talent Development Program from China

Agricultural University. Kurt-Christian Kersebaum and Claas Nendel were funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Germany (031B0039C) through MACSUR2 and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of Czech Republic via SustES - Adaptation strategies for

sustainable ecosystem services and food security under adverse environmental conditions (project no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000797). Anne Gobin was funded by BELSPO under grant no. SD/RI/03A. Marco Binci and Roberto Ferrise were funded by JPI FACCE MACSUR2 through the

Italian Ministry for Agricultural, Food, and Forestry Policies (D.M.24064/7303/15). Margarita Ruiz-Ramos was funded by The Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA) and Spanish Research Agency (AEI) via MACSUR2 (APCIN2016-00050-00-00). The work of Mirek Trnak and the collaboration with Jørgen E. Olesen, Claas Nendel and Kurt-Christian Kersebaum was funded through the project SustES-Adaptation strategies for sustainable ecosystem services and food security under adverse environmental conditions (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/16_019/0000797). Ülo Niinemets was supported by the European Regional Development Fund (Center of Excellence EcolChange). Vera Potopová was supported by the project "Water systems and water management in the Czech Republic in conditions of the climate change" from the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic: S02030027.

Conflict of interest None
Read more

The article ”Priotity for climate adaptation measures in European crop production systems” is published in the European Journal of Agronomy. It is written by Jin Zhao, Marco Bindi, Josef Eitzinger, Roberto Ferrise, Zinta Gaile, Anne Gobin, Annelie Holzkamper, Kurt-Christian Kersebaum, Jerzy Kozyra, Evelin Loit, Pavol Nejedlik, Claas Nendel, Ülo Niinemets, Taru Palosuo, Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio, Vera Potopova, Margarita Ruiz-Ramos, Pytrik Reidsma, Bert Rijk, Mirek Trnka, Martin K. van Ittersum and Jørgen E. Olesen.


Contact Professor and Head of Department Jørgen E. Olesen, Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University. Tel: +45 40821659 or e-mail: jeo@agro.au.dk